Which Raitts were where when?

Actually, on a roll and looking up some of the other uncommon (as well as common) names in the list above, it appears that Hugh/Hugo is old-German, the name of various saints and meaning soul, mind, intellect. It was popular in the middle ages, as was Roger, another old-German name meaning famous spearman. Henry too is old-German meaning home ruler. As a Norman name it was chosen for many kings of England and France. George is actually of Greek origin and means farmer. St George, of course, is the patron saint of England, just as Andrew is of Scotland. Also of Greek origin, Andrew means warrior, strong and manly. William is old-German with the meaning will (desire)-helmet or protection. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, three out of four English boys were named William or some derivative. Robert is also old-German meaning bright fame and favoured by Scots in the fourteenth century. Thomas is Aramaic in origin, biblical, with the meaning twin. The name was popular following the martyrdom in the 12th century of Thomas à Becket. John, Hebrew in origin, means God is gracious and is a well-established biblical name. James is also Hebrew meaning he who supplants. Also biblical and the name of Scottish kings. Similarly David is of Hebrew origin with the meaning beloved and a biblical all-rounder. A 6th century David is the patron Saint of Wales and the name is a royal name in Scotland. Simon, another biblical name, is also Hebrew and means to hear or be heard. Common in the Middle Ages, it does not seem to have been used much in Scotland. The biblical name Peter, meaning rock, is of Greek origin. Alexander, protector of men, is also Greek and the name of Scottish kings. Archibald, on the other hand, is of old-French and old-German origin and was brought to Britain by the Norman Conquest where it became largely popular in Scotland. The meaning is genuine, bold, brave. There is only one Gavin in the list above – typically of Scottish and Welsh origins the name means white falcon and comes in a variety of forms. Mark is apparently Latin with the meaning dedicated to Mars. It is also a biblical name. Christoph is a variation of the Greek Christopher meaning bearing Christ. Donald is Scottish/Gaelic in origin meaning great chief. Walter is old-German meaning commander of the army and was brought to Britain by the Normans. And Francis is of Latin origin signifying Frenchman or free man - clearly popular after the Norman Conquest. Charles also means free man, but is from old-German and the name of kings in Europe as well as England, where it has been popular since the 17th century. Laurence is from the Latin Laurentum, a town south of Rome known for its olive trees, and with the meaning crowned with laurels. Geoffrey is the old French form of a Germanic name and means divine peace or peaceful place.

What is striking in this little exercise is the sheer number of names that are the same – mainly William, John, James and David. There are a couple of Andrews and Archibalds, several Alexanders and a few more Roberts – but overall in four hundred years the main names are very consistent and persistent! The very early sons may have been named after the Scottish kings of the times: David Alexander, William. Robert, James - and daughters after Margaret – names (including Mary and Elizabeth) that have been carried down through the Raitt family to this day (though no-one seems to have been named after the kings Kenneth, Malcolm, Donald or Edgar!)


It is perhaps worth pointing out that in 1066, the Norman Conquest forced many English refugees into Lothian in Scotland, among them Edgar Atheling, the Anglo-Saxon heir to the English throne, and his sister Margaret. Born in exile in Hungary, Margaret became the second wife of Malcolm III around 1090, and under her influence, as Queen Margaret of Scotland, life at the Scottish court became more civilized with English fashions and customs being adopted. She persuaded her husband to undermine Celtic traditions, Romanize the Celtic church, substitute Saxon for Gaelic as the court language, and replace the clan system with a form of feudalism. She founded many monasteries, and for her good deeds, she was canonized as St Margaret of Scotland in 1251. Although she chose names from the Old English royal dynasty for her four eldest sons, in a break with tradition and the past, she introduced new names for her two youngest sons: Alexander, after the reforming pope Alexander II; and David, after the Old Testament hero-king – and both these were educated in England.


There are some unusual names that have not been carried down (so far as I have been able to ascertain) – these include the earliest Raitt I have found, Jordan; our putative progenitor Gervaise; the new found Cuthbert; and the intriguing Anselm. I wondered if the latter was a badly written name, but I have discovered that there was an Anselm, born in 1033 in Aosta in the Alps (near Rhaetia?!), who moved to Normandy and became Abbot of the monastery at Bec, well-known to William the Conqueror he later became Archbishop of Canterbury where he died and was buried in 1109 and then elevated to Sainthood. So why five hundred years later did his parents call their son Anselm? Were they overly religious? Did they have a thing for the Saint because of his thinking and stances? Did they have Norman blood in their veins? Another unusual name is Mungo meaning kind, gentle, dear. It was the common name used for the 6th century St Kentigern, patron saint and founder of Glasgow, whose Celtic Christians founded an Abbey in North Ayrshire.


Judging from their occurrences elsewhere, other names such as Henry, Roger and Hugh are not so much Scottish as Anglo-Norman, while George is later Anglo-Hanoverian. William might just be named for William the Conqueror whose Norman knights appropriated lands,  Frenchified names and brought in the use of surnames. It is telling, though, that none of the early Raitts are called Edward after the English king who forced the Scots (including Gervaise, Andrew and their kin) to pay homage. Jordan seems to have been a fairly common name at the time of the Crusades when knights brought back flasks of water from the river in which Christ had been baptized. Gervaise is a (French) variant of old-German Gervase which may mean with honour or from the word gar for spear. There was also a 2nd century Saint Gervase. Cuthbert is old-English and has the meaning bright or famous. There were also St Cuthberts in the 7th and 8th centuries. The oldest known European book - the 7th century (St Cuthbert) Gospel of St John - was discovered in 1104 in the tomb of the early Christian leader Cuthbert who was buried in Lindisfarne about 698. Still extant, it was acquired by the British Library in April 2012 and has been digitized as well as being on display.

On the pages of this website, many Raitts are mentioned. Those dating from the 18th century and later are reasonably well documented in birth, marriage and death records as well as censuses starting in 1841. However, the details about earlier Raitts are sketchy and not all are mentioned herein, initially because they did not seem to have any direct relation to me and mine. However, with the expansion of the site to include other Raitts, then I thought it might be helpful to give as complete a listing as possible of all the early (male) Raitts mentioned, as well as those found in diverse ancient documents I have searched. This effort has been prompted by a completely new name I have just come across – that of Cuthbert de Rate in 1457 (and he is probably the same chap as Cuthbertus Red in 1450).


So below I have attempted to put the early Raitts I know about or have found in some semblance of chronological order, with occupation or title and location where that is apparent and with an arbitrary cut-off date of 1700. For most of these people the dates of birth and death are not known and the date given is when they are referred to in a given document or charter – but whether this is at the beginning, middle or end of their lives is never clear. Where there are several mentions of what appears to be the same person in the records, then I have given the earliest date and place found. It is noteworthy that many of the Raitts were ministers – many of them studying in Aberdeen at King’s College, where some became Regents, Sub-Principals and then Principals, as well as also becoming Ministers at various kirks in Aberdeenshire, Kincardineshire and Angus at different times in their careers (see Religious Raitts.) However, all of these people are included in the list only once (though I have sometimes given their most prestigious (i.e. latest) title for the earliest date.) I may add these different dates, places and occupations to the Raitt Timeline.


With a variety of sources, then it is possible that, even taking due care, I have inadvertently included the same person twice with different dates. But in the main the list below should constitute a fairly accurate record of individual Raitts. And, as usual, when I say Raitt, I mean any of the many varieties of the name used. Indeed, as noted elsewhere, the same person has multiple spellings depending on the date of the document and whether the reference to the individual is in Latin, French or English. Many of these documents were published in the late 19th century when the Raits or Hallgreen, then Anniston, were known in aristocratic circles – thus the name Rathe, Rat, Rate tended to be standardized and written as the more familiar Rait.


More details of some of the individuals in the list will be found on the pages of Other de Rathes; Raits of Hallgreen; Illustrious Raitts; Religious Raitts; Military Raitts; Raitt Residences; Raitt Arms; Raitt Name; Raitt Trees in Angus; and Raitt Memorial Inscriptions. Clearly more individuals will surface and I shall endeavour to add these as I come across them. A few Raitts are undated - namely Christoph Raitt, who may be a relative of Hugo Raitt in Kirnstein in Germany in 1489 (see under Other Raitt Arms and Bavarian Raitts), and George Raitt who lost his head in Linlithgow (see Raitt Anecdotes) - he may well be related to the other Raits in Linlithgow in the mid-1500s. There is also William Rait of Redlock who seems to have set in motion the demolition of a chapel near Stonehaven in the mid-1500s (see Raitt Anecdotes) and another William Rait of Lentushe, Aberdeen, whose grandson Archibald went to Lisnae in Poland about 1650.

1066

1216     

1250

1291     

1296     

1297     

1299

1299


1310

1312

1321

1337

1341

1346

1367

1367

1371

1372

1377

1398


1405

1418

1420

1423

1425

1427

1431

1435

1435

1435

1446

1450

1457

1462

1466

1471

1471

1477

1478

1478

1481

1487

1488

1490

1493


1505

1518

1526

1541

1541

1541

1547

1550

1550

1550

1553

1553

1554

1559

1564

1565

1566

1567

1570

1570

1570

1570

1570

1570

1570

1567

1580

1580

1583

1582

1583

1583

1586

1586

1586

1587

1588

1590

1590

1590

1591

1591

1593


1602

1602

1604

1606

1612

1613

1620

1620

1622

1622

1623

1623

1628

1630

1632

1633

1634

1635

1636

1641

1642

1642

1642

1644

1644

1646

1648

1648

1650

1653

1653

1654

1655

1655

1656

1657

1657

1658

1658

1659

1659

1660

1661

1661

1661

1662

1662

1663

1663

1663

1665

1666

1667

1667

1669

1669

1669

1670

1670

1672

1671

1671

1674

1675

1675

1676

1677

1677

1677

1677

1677

1677

1678

1680

1680

1680

1682

1683

1684

1685

1685

1685

1685

1685

1685

1685

1686

1688

1688

1688

1689

1690

1692

1695

1695

1695

1695

1696

1699

1699


1706

1710

1711

1714

Raat

Jordan de Raat          

Robert Rait

Gervaise de Rathe     

Andrew de Rat          

Roger de Rathe     

Johannes Rat

Andreas de Raath


Geoffrey de Raaite  

Thomas de Raaite    

Johannis de Ratis     

Alexander of Rath    

Thomas de Rate     

Alexander de Rathe     

William de Raat     

Gabriel Raitt          

Hugh de Rath          

Symon Rate

Alexander Rayt       

Johannes de Rathe     


Alexander de Rait     

John de Rate            

Heinrich Rait            

Thomas de Rate      

Mark Rait                   

David Raite           

Alexander Raith       

John de Rate              

Henry de Rate              

Archibald de Rate     

Henry of Rate              

William de Rat              

Cuthbert de Rate     

Simon de Rede              

James Rait          

David Rait              

David Rait          

Gavin Rath          

David Rait          

Thomas Rait          

Hugo Raitt               

Andrew Rayte          

Robert Raite          

William Rait

Johann Reyth

     

Christoph Raitt         

Robert Rayt              

David Rait              

Archibald Rait          

William Rait            

James Rait              

William Rait          

Anselm Rait               

David Rait               

Donald Rait          

John Rait               

Thomas Rait          

Walter Rait          

John Rait               

Henry Rait              

James Raitt              

Marcs Raitt              

Robert Rait          

Robert Rait              

Thomas Rait            

George Rait            

John Raitt               

Peter Rait               

David Rait               

Robert Rait              

James Rait           

John Rait               

Thomas Raith          

David Raitt              

Robert Rait              

David Rait          

James Rait          

Alexander Rayth       

Mungo Rayth            

John Rayth              

William Rait              

John Rait                 

Robert Rait              

William Reat          

Alexander Rait         

David Rait              

James Rait               

Alexander Rait

       

Robert Rate          

Archibald Rait              

Andrew Rait          

Robert Rait          

James Rait              

George Raitt              

James Rait              

William Rait          

Andrew Rait          

William Rait          

John Rait                      

John Rait                 

Robert Rait          

James Rait              

James Rait               

George Rait            

Hans Georg Raitt     

Alexander Raitt       

Andrew Rait          

William Rait              

Peter Rait              

James Rait              

William Rait            

David Rait              

William Rait          

William Rait          

James Rait              

William Rait            

Archibald Rait          

William Rait              

James Raitt

James Raitt              

Alexander Rait         

Robert Raitt            

Andrew Rait          

James Raitt              

John Raitt               

Robert Rait          

Robert Rait          

Robertus Raetus     

Andrew Rait            

David Raitt              

William Rait                 

Laurence Raitt          

William Raitt            

William Rait            

David Rait               

Alexander Raitt       

Jacobus Retti Halgreene

Peter Rait               

George Raitt            

William Rhett              

David Rait              

James Rait                  

Robert Rait           

Henrie Rait              

George Rait            

William Rait          

Peter Rait               

George Rait          

Alexander Rait              

William Reat          

William Rait          

Charles Rait            

John Raitt               

George Rait          

Andrew Rait          

Alexander Raitt       

Archibald Rait              

David Rait          

Alexander Rait

Margaret Raitt       

William Rait           

James Rait          

Robert Rait            

Francis Rait            

Johne Rait          

John Rait               

Francis Raitt          

George Rait            

George Raitt          

David Rait               

James Rait          

William Rait          

Francis Raitt              

William Rait            

John Raitt               

James Raitt            

Alexander Rait       

James Raitt            

James Rait              

David Raitt            

John Rait              

David Rate          

Alexander Rait     

James Rait          

James Rait               

James Rait          

John Rait                 

Thomas Raitt


George Raitt            

Robert Raitt            

Jean Raitt

Margaret Raitt               

Norman knight

Land owner

Crusader

Constable

Knight                   

Knight          

Court roll

Knight


Payment               

Payment               

Bishop              

Witness                 

King’s shield bearer

Knight          

Witness              

Knight                   

Coroner              

Knight's servant

Bailie                    

Witness


Knight

Tax evader

Scribe

Witness

Laird

King’s confessor

Bailie

Witness

Witness

Witness

Witness

Procurator  

Witness

Vicar  

Abbot

Laird

Citizen

Commissary

Grantee

Chaplain

Book owner

Tenement owner

Witness

Laird

Grantee


Book owner

Chaplain  

Laird

Witness

Witness

Burgess

    

Sasine

Burgess

Election


     

Notary

Sasine

Serjeant

Burgess

Knight

Reader

Maimed

Trial

Trial

Trial

Murdered  

Trial

Trial

Minister

     

Tenement

Principal

Landowner

Laird

Regent

Dispute

Dispute

Dispute

Humanist

Elder

Minister

Minister

Traveller

Master

Minister

Burgess  


Witness

Minister

Bailie

Heir

Minister

Witness

Minister

Laird

Heir

Sasine

Minister  

Hanged

Student

Advocate

Birth     

Land owner

Estate owner

Birth  

Principal

Regent  

Minister

Litser

Burgess  

Minister

Minister  

Laird  

Minister

Birth  

Merchant

Minister

Birth     

Birth

Birth

Birth

Laird  

Birth

Birth

Provost

Citizen

Minister  

Birth

Birth

Principal

Birth  

Merchant

Burgess (Minister)

Tailor

Birth

Baron

MA

Litster

Colonel

Landowner

Death  

Landowner  

Died aged 18

Birth

Burgess (Laird)

Burgess (Minister)

     

Merchant

Provost

Laird

Birth

Death

Physician     

Burgess

Burgess

Burgess

Student

Birth

Birth

Minister

Landowner

Birth

Standard bearer

Student

Birth

Birth

Birth

Birth

Birth

Lawyer

  

Graduate

Birth

Student

Birth

Birth

Minister

Bishop

Birth

Burgess


Student

Merchant     

Birth

Student

Merchant

Birth


Graduate

Burgess

Tailor

Death

Hastings, England

Lincolnshire, England

Egypt

Invernairn, Moray

Invernairn, Moray

Ayr

Linlithgow, Lothian

Arbroath


Perth

Perth

Perth; Elgin; Aberdeen

Ayr

Kincardine; Angus

Crécy, France

Slains, Aberdeen

Kürnstein, Bavaria, Germany

Ayr

Byres, Haddingtonshire

Edinburgh  

Elgin, Moray


Rait, Moray

Linlithgow, Lothian

Aachen, Germany

Philorth, Aberdeenshire

Drumnagair; Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Glasgow

Ayr

Alvah, Banff; Drumtochty, Kincardineshire

Alvah, Banff; Drumtochty, Kincardineshire

Alvah, Banff; Drumtochty, Kincardineshire

Brechin, Angus

Ellon, Aberdeenshire

Brechin, Angus

Montrose, Angus

Balmerino; Culross, Fife

Drumnagair; Inverbervie, Kincardineshire

Brechin, Angus

St Andrews, Fife

Drumnagair; Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

St Andrews, Fife

Kirnstein, Bavaria, Germany

Glasgow

Drumtochty, Kincardineshire

Drumnagair, Inverbervie, Kincardineshire

Nairn


Bavaria, Germany

Perth; Drumnagair, Kincardineshire

Drumnagair; Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Folay, Kincardineshire

Folay, Kincardineshire

Linlithgow, Midlothian

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Linlithgow, Midlothian

Linlithgow, Midlothian

Murthlac, Banffshire

Silliflett, Kincardineshire

Silliflett, Kincardineshire

Deer, Aberdeenshire

Linlithgow, Midlothian

Linlithgow, Midlothian

Dundee, Angus

Kürnstein, Bavaria, Germany

Keig, Aberdeenshire

Tippertie, Aberdeenshire

Pitskellie, Angus

Furrathie

Bervie, Kinkardineshire

Tibberta, Aberdeenshire

Halgrene, Kincardinshire

Sallieflat, Kincardineshire

Tannadice, Angus

Inverbervie, Kincardineshire

Ayr

Aberdeen

Kincardine; Angus

Drumnagair; Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Aberdeen

Newtoun, Ayr

Ayr

Ayr

Aberdeen

Inverbervie, Angus

Kinross, Perthshire

Mains & Strathmartine, Angus

Aberdeen; Prussia


Inverbervie, Angus

Inverbervie, Angus


Drumtochty, Kincardineshire

Kintore, Aberdeenshire

Inverbervie, Kincardineshire

Inverbervie, Kincardineshire

Dunottar, Kincardineshire

Monymusk, Aberdeen

Kinneff, Kincardineshire

Benholm, Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Balmakewan, Kincardineshire

Balmakewan, Kincardineshire

Inverkeilor, Angus

Edinburgh

Aberdeen

Edmonstone, Midlothian

Aberdeen

Meikle-Folla, Fyvie

Unterbruck, Bavaria, Germany

Kinnell, Angus?

Aberdeen

Aberdeen

Bervie, Kincardineshire

Balmakewan, Kincardineshire

Dundee, Angus

Newburgh, Fife

Kingoldrum, Angus

Ballandro, Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Inverkeilor, Angus

Pitforthar, Angus

Rayne, Aberdeen; Prussia

Monikie, Angus

Inverkeilor, Angus

Brechin, Angus

Arbroath, Angus

Brechin, Angus

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Kinnell, Angus

Brechin, Angus

Montrose, Angus

Paris, France

Roberton, Marykirk, Aberdeenshire

Aberdeen

Brechin, Angus

Aberdeen

Brechin, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Edinburgh

Brechin, Angus

Udny, Aberdeenshire

King’s, Aberdeen

Montrose, Angus

Charleston, South Carolina, USA

Finlastoun, Aberdeenshire

Edmonstone, Midlothian

Finlastoun; Drumnagair, Kincardineshire

Cuikstoun, Angus

Aberdeen

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Dundee, Angus

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Dundee, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Aberdeen

Inverkeilor, Angus; Nevis, West Indies

Dundee; Inverkeilor, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Danzig, Poland

Aberdeen

Aberdeen

Montrose, Angus

Kincaldrum, Angus

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Arbroath, Angus

Scots Regiment, The Netherlands

Aberdeen

Aberdeen

Kinnell, Angus

Monikie, Angus

British Isles

Monikie, Angus

Hallgreen, Kincardineshire

Over Pitforthie, Angus

Aberdeen

Dundee, Angus

Leszno, Poland

Kinnell, Angus

Dundee, Angus

Dunnotar, Kincardineshire

Brechin, Angus

St Vigeans, Angus

Findlaystone; Aberdeen

Breyington

Aberdeen

Aberdeen

Arbroath, Angus

Hallgreen; Aberdeen

Königsberg, Prussia

Arbroath, Angus


Leiden University, The Netherlands

Poznan, Poland

Aberdeen; Virginia; Jamaica

Virginia, USA

There are also a couple of other early Raitts in Bavaria for whom the precise dates are not known, but they are likely to be from between the 14th-16th centuries.


Steffan Raitt                                                     Bavaria, Germany

Johann Arnold Raitt         Knight                         Kürnstein, Bavaria, Germany


In addition, it is possibly also worth mentioning the family of Raidt of Raidyenstein in Bavaria, Germany, which is also recorded as Raitt of Raittenstein and whose coat of arms is found for 1560. Individuals include:


1495   Peter

1574   Sigmund

1699   Georg

1742   Peter Wilhelm


Then there was poor old George Raitt of Linlithgow who lost his head at some early date (see Raitt Anecdotes).